Views: 3 Author: Xicheng EP LTD Publish Time: 2022-11-28 Origin: Xicheng EP LTD
Long-term inhalation of a small amount of ammonia gas can cause mild poisoning and cause various chronic diseases.
The irritation of ammonia is a reliable warning signal of harmful concentrations. However, due to olfactory fatigue, it will be difficult to detect low concentrations of ammonia after long-term exposure. Inhalation is the main route of exposure, and the poisoning manifestations after inhalation of ammonia gas mainly include the following aspects.
Mild inhalation of ammonia poisoning manifests as rhinitis, pharyngitis, sore throat, and hoarseness. Ammonia entering the trachea and bronchi can cause coughing, expectoration, and blood in the sputum. In severe cases, hemoptysis and pulmonary edema, dyspnea, white or bloody foamy sputum, and large and medium-sized blisters in both lungs. Patients have burning pain in the throat, cough, expectoration or hemoptysis, chest tightness and retrosternal pain.
The occurrence of acute inhalation ammonia poisoning is mostly caused by accidents such as pipe rupture and valve burst. Acute ammonia poisoning is mainly manifested as respiratory mucosa irritation and burns. The symptoms vary according to the concentration of ammonia, inhalation time, and personal sensitivity.
Acute mild poisoning: dry throat, sore throat, hoarseness, cough, expectoration, chest tightness and mild headache, dizziness, fatigue, bronchitis and peribronchitis.
Acute moderate poisoning: the above symptoms are aggravated, dyspnea, sometimes bloodshot sputum, mild cyanosis, obvious conjunctival hyperemia, laryngeal edema, and dry and wet lungs.
Acute severe poisoning: severe cough, large amount of pink foamy sputum, shortness of breath, palpitations, dyspnea, further aggravation of laryngeal edema, obvious cyanosis, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, severe pneumothorax and mediastinal emphysema, etc.
Severe inhalation poisoning: laryngeal edema, glottic stenosis and respiratory mucosal shedding may occur, which may cause tracheal obstruction and suffocation. Inhalation of high concentrations of ammonia can directly affect the permeability of pulmonary capillaries and cause pulmonary edema, which can induce convulsions, convulsions, lethargy, coma and other disturbances of consciousness. Individual patients who inhale extremely concentrated ammonia gas may experience respiratory and cardiac arrest.
Low concentrations of ammonia can rapidly irritate the eyes and moist skin. Moist skin or eye contact with high concentrations of ammonia can cause severe chemical burns. Acute mild poisoning: tearing, photophobia, blurred vision, conjunctival hyperemia.
Skin contact can cause severe pain and burns, and coffee-like coloring can occur. Corroded parts are gelatinous and soft, and deep tissue damage can occur.
Vapors in high concentrations are highly irritating to the eyes and can cause pain and burns leading to marked inflammation with possible edema, destruction of epithelial tissue, corneal clouding and iris inflammation. Mild cases generally resolve, and severe cases may persist for a long time, with complications such as persistent edema, scarring, permanent clouding, eye bulging, cataracts, eyelid and eyeball adhesions, and blindness. Repeated or continuous exposure to ammonia can cause conjunctivitis.