Views:3 Author:China xicheng Publish Time: 2021-04-21 Origin:China xicheng
To clarify the main body, standards, and measures of air pollution prevention and control through legislation.
The first is to formulate a sound air pollution prevention and control legal system. As early as the 19th century, the United Kingdom enacted the Alkali Law and Public Health Law, and in 1956 promulgated the "Clean Air Law" specifically for air pollution. The United States promulgated the "Air Pollution Control Act" in 1955. It enacted the "Clean Air Act" in 1963, which became the primary legal basis for preventing air pollution.
The second is to clarify the powers and responsibilities of governments at all levels for air pollution control. The "Clean Air Act" revised in 1970 in the United States explained that the federal government is responsible for formulating national air quality standards, the state is responsible for drafting the state's compliance method and timetable, and the local is responsible for implementing the three-level management of air pollution prevention and control that is supplemented according to exceptional local circumstances. System. The federal government has set up a particular environmental protection agency to manage it and established an air quality advisory committee to provide decision-making services to the president. The British "Environmental Protection Act" and "National Air Quality Strategy" propose that the central government formulate a unified national air quality strategy. Still, the municipal and county governments have the right to apply for the establishment of air quality management areas in areas that cannot meet the national air quality standards and formulate long-term Air quality action plan to meet federal standards; the National Environment Administration comprehensively controls large and dangerous industrial facilities, and local governments supervise small and low-risk industrial facilities; the state establishes an air pollution health impact committee to assess the effects of air pollution on human health influences.
The third is to delineate air pollution control areas and implement regional linkages. Air pollution has regional characteristics, so all countries adopt regional control methods. The "Air Quality Act" of the United States delineates air quality control areas to coordinate air pollution problems among states. In 1976, California took the lead in establishing the "South Coast Regional Air Quality Management Zone," a government entity that controls regional air pollution. It gave it the right to legislate, enforce, supervise, and punish it through the formulation and implementation of air quality management plans, pollution permits, inspections, monitoring, information disclosure, and public participation to achieve emission reduction targets.
The fourth is to guarantee the sources of funds for preventing and controlling air pollution in various forms.
Control industrial pollution, promote industrial transformation and energy transformation.
The first is to enforce pollution control in the industrial and energy sectors and encourage industrial restructuring and a circular economy model. The United Kingdom stipulates the upper limit of acid concentration and smoke concentration for polluting factories. With the support of related laws, it is mandatory to close or transfer extensive polluting facilities. In the 1980s, as the global manufacturing industry shifted to developing countries, the control of industrial pollution in developed countries turned to industrial restructuring, focusing on the development of high-tech industries, service industries, and green economic industries. At the same time, European and Japanese governments have begun to advocate circular economy vigorously, encourage enterprises to adopt advanced clean production techniques and technologies, and support establishing a circular economy system for mutual use of waste within enterprises, between enterprises industrial parks.
The second is the transformation of industrial governance thinking from emission concentration control to total amount control. In the early developed countries, air pollutant emission control was mainly based on concentration control. After the 1980s, all countries introduced complete emission control when they revised relevant standards. Taking Japan as an example, its total control is divided into complete discharge control and full regional control. The total discharge volume control is based on the maximum allowable total discharge volume and concentration and must not exceed the standard. Regional complete control is based on the minimum reduction of total emissions and requires reductions to meet the criteria. The government has strictly defined the total emissions, the total reduction plan, and the allocation of quotas.
The third is to promote the transformation of the energy structure and encourage the application of new energy. The 1973 oil crisis forced developed countries to reduce energy demand, improve energy efficiency, and promote the transformation of energy structure.